Linkar/Referenserinfo(@)silvervatten.se

Generator + silver
NU Life. Köpa generator (inkl. silver)? miniSilver® generator. (engelska/tyska)
Clark-Zapper. Silvervattengenerator. Lite dyr. Ej testad ännu. (svenska)

Silver + guld + platinumstavar
www.pulsar.li Köpa 99,99% rent silver & guld? (engelska/tyska)
http://www.sargenta.se/index.php (svensk sida. Kom ihåg att köpa silvertråd med kvalitet 999)

Medicinflaskor
www.nordicpack.com Medicinflaskor med mera... (svenska)
https://opella.se Medicinflaskor med mera (svenska)

Utbildning/Information
www.cgcsforum.com Forum för speciellt intresserade (engelska)
www.ion-silver.com (svenska)
www.2000taletvetenskap.nu (svenska)

Referenser
Ref. 1: Use of Colloids In Health and Disease. Kolloidalt silver är bevisat speciellt effektivt mot invärtes åkommor. Dr. Henry Crooks har påvisat att silver i dess kolloidala form är högst bakteriedödande, oskadlig för människor samt absolut fri från gifter. Jämfört med kemiska sammansättningar så kan silvret i sin kolloidala form användas i en mycket mer koncentrerad form med korresponderande resultat. Alla svampar, virus, bakterier, streptokocker, stafylokocker och andra patogeniska organismer dödas inom 3-4 minuter; det finnes ingen känd mikrob som överlever mer än 6 minuter från en lösning av kolloidalt silver med en blandning som är så svag som 5 ppm (parts per million) även om det inte förekommer några sidoeffekter från högre koncentrationer.

Ref. 2: Provo Herald, 13 februari 1992, sidan D1: ”Colloidalt Silver As A Cure For AIDS”.

Ref. 3: American Drug Index, sektionen om Invärtes Farmaceutisk Kemi erkände silver för dets bakteriedödande egenskaper genom att omtala en stabiliserad form för det ”milda silverproteinet”. Det finns flera former av detta milda silverprotein.

Ref. 4: The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 6:e utgåvan: mild silverprotein är listad som medicinskt användande (”proteinet” är spårämnet som används som stabilisator).

Ref. 5: FDA (Amerikanska Food & Drug Administration – jmf. Svenska Livsmedelsverket) har sagt att på grund av att silver är ett ”före-år-1938-läkemedel” och kan därför fortfarande få lov att marknadsföras.

Ref. 6: The Enviromental Protection Agency´s Poison Control Center rapporterar inga gifter i förbindelse med kolloidalt silver samt benämner det som ofarligt oberoende av koncentrationsstyrkan på det kolloidala silvret.

Ref. 7: Dr. Robert Becker, författare av The Body Electric, påvisade en korrelation mellan låg silverhalt och sjukdom. Han sade att avsaknaden av silver var orsaken till ett dåligt fungerande immunförsvar. Dr. Beckers experiment konkluderade att silver fungerar på samtliga patogener (sjukdomsframkallande organismer) utan negativa bieffekter eller skadegörelse på kroppens celler. Han påvisar vidare att att silvret gjorde mer än att döda sjukdomsrelaterade organismer. Det stimulerade växten i skadad väv. Patienter med brännskador samt äldre patienter upplevde en snabbare läkeprocess. Han upptäckte också att samtliga cancerceller återgick till normala celler. Alla strängar av patogener som är resistanta mot antibiotika dödas av silvret. Trots detta kunde han inte hitta ett silversupplement på marknaden.

Ref. 8: Dr Björn Nordström, Karolinska Institutet, Sverige, har använt silver i sin cancerbehandling under många år. Han säger att det hela egentligen är ganska simpelt. Behandlingen bringar en snabb reduktion hos patienter som andra doktorer gett upp hoppet om.

Ref. 9: ”Silver Our Mightiest Germ Fighter”, Science Digest, Mars 1978. Som en antibiotika dödar silver mer än 650 sjukdomsframkallande organismer; resistanta strängar hindras i att utvecklas. Silver är absolut icke-giftigt. Silver är den bästa bakteriedödaren som finns. Doktorer rapporterar att silver, som tas för invärtes bruk, arbetar mot syfillis, kolera och malaria, diabetes, samt kraftiga brännskador. Richard L. Davies, direktör i Silver Institutet, vilka överser silverproduktionen i 37 länder, rapporterar: ”Under 4 år har vi beskrivit 87 viktiga användningsområden för silver”.

Ref. 10: ”Colloidal Preparations Of Silver In Pharmacy”, Brittish Medical Journal, Februari 1923. Rent silver är helt icke-irriterande. Under tester, under mycket höga utspädningsrater, överstigande 200 till 1, har visat att den terapeutiska effekten med tanke på desinfektion är av mycket stort värde. Mycket viktig notering: Det finnes tillverkare som har kolloidalt silver med stor koncentrationshalt i ett försök om att förbättra dess egenskaper. De opererar under falska premisser; det motsatta är sanningen. Produkten blir mindre effektiv och kan även leda till förgiftning. Var försiktig med dessa producenter som proklamerar hög koncentrationshalt.

Nedan återfinns ett antal artiklar som omhandlar nano- och icke-nano silverpartiklar:

Antimicrobial effects

  • Baker C, Pradhan A, Pakstis L, et al. (2005). Synthesis and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol., 5(2):244-9. Abstract
  • Chen, X., Schluesener, HJ. (January 2008). Nanosilver: A nanoproduct in medical application. Toxicology Letters, 176(1): 1-12. Abstract
  • Chen, J., Han, C.M., Lin, X.W., Tang, Z.J. and Su, S.J. (2006). Effect of silver nanoparticle dressing on second degree burn wound, Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi, 44(1):50–52. Abstract
  • Cheng, D., Yang, J. and Zhao, Y. (2004). Antibacterial materials of silver nanoparticles application in medical appliances and appliances for daily use. Chin. Med. Equip. J., 4:26–32.
  • Cho, K.H., Park, J.E., Osaka, T., and Park, S-G. (November 2005). The study of antimicrobial activity and preservative effects of nanosilver ingredient. Electrochimica Acta, 51,5: 956-960. Abstract
  • Cohen, M.S., Stern, J.M., Vanni, et al. (2007). In vitro analysis of a nanocrystalline silver-coated surgical mesh. Surg. Infect., 8: 397–403. Abstract
  • Edward-Jones V. (2006). Antimicrobial and barrier effects of silver against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Wound Care, 15(7):285-290. Abstract
  • Elechiguerra, J.L. Burt, J.L., Morones, J.R. et al. (2005). Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV-1. J. Nanobiotechnol., 3:6. Abstract
  • Ip, M., Lui, S.L., Poon, V.K.M., Lung, I. and Burd, A. (2006) Antimicrobial activities of silver dressings: an in vitro comparison. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 55: 59-63. Abstract
  • Jiang, H., Manolache, S., Wong, A.C.L., Denes, F.S. (May 2004). Plasma-enhanced deposition of Silver nanoparticles onto polymer and metal surfaces for the generation of antimicrobial characteristics. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 93:3: 1411-1422. Abstract
  • Jose, R.M., Jose, L.E., Alejandra, C. (2005). The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 16: 2346–2353. Abstract
  • Jung, W. K., Koo, H. C., Kim, K. W. et al. (2008). Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Silver Ion in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 74: 2171-2178. Abstract
  • Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu KN, et al. (2007). Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine, 3(1):95-101. Abstract
  • Lansdown, A.B. (2006). Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Current problems in dermatology, 33:17-34. Abstract
  • Lee, H.Y., Park, H.K., Lee, Y.M. and al. (2007). A practical procedure for producing silver nanocoated fabric and its antibacterial evaluation for biomedical applications. Chem. Commun. (Camb.), 28: 2959–2961. Abstract
  • Lok CN, Ho CM, Chen R, et al. (2007). Silver nanoparticles: partial oxidation and antibacterial activities. J Biol Inorg Chem., 12(4):527-34. Abstract
  • Melaiye, A., Youngs, W.J. (February 2005). Silver and its application as an antimicrobial agent. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 15,2: 125-130(6). Abstract
  • Morones, J.R., Elechiguerra, J.L., Camacho, A. et al. (2005). The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 16: 2346-2353. Abstract
  • Pal, S., Tak, Y.K., and Song, J.M. (2007). Does antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle depend on shape of nanoparticle? A study on Gram-negative E. coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Abstract
  • Panacek A, Kvítek L, Prucek R, et al. (2007). Silver colloid nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity. J Phys Chem B., 110(33):16248-53. Abstract
  • Perelshtein, I; Applerot, G; Perkas, N. et al. (June 2008). Sonochemical coating of silver nanoparticles on textile fabrics (nylon, polyester and cotton) and their antibacterial activity. Nanotechnology, 19(24). Abstract
  • Raffi M, Hussain F, Bhatti TM, et al. (March 2008). Antibacterial characterization of silver nanoparticles against E. coli ATCC-15224. Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 24(2): 192-196. Abstract
  • Shahverdi AR, Fakhimi A, Shahverdi HR, Minaian S. (June 2007). Synthesis and effect of silver nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nanomedicine, 3(2):168-71. Abstract
  • Silver, S., Le T. Phung and Silver, G. (2006). Silver as biocides in burn and wound dressings and bacterial resistance to silver compounds. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 33: 627-634.
    Article
  • Vigneshwaran, N.; Kathe, A.A.; Varadarajan, P.V. et al. (2007). Functional finishing of cotton fabrics using silver nanoparticles. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7: 1893–1897. Abstract
  • Yu, H., Xu, X., Chen, X. et. (2007). Preparation and antibacterial effects of PVA-PVP hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103(1):125-133. Abstract
  • Zeng, F. Hou, C., Wu, S. et al. (2007). Silver nanoparticles directly formed on natural macroporous matrix and their
    anti-microbial activities. Nanotechnology, 18, 055605.
    Article

Toxicity

  • Ahamed, M; Karns, M; Goodson, M. et al. (December 2008). DNA damage response to different surface chemistry of silver nanoparticles in mammalian cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 233(3):404-410.
  • Almofti, M.R., Ichikawa, T., Yamashita, K., et al. (2003). Silver ion induces a cyclosporine a-insensitive permeability transition in rat liver mitochondria and release of apoptogenic cytochrome C. J. Biochem., 134(1):43–49. Abstract
  • Archer, SL. (May 2008). Dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver is reversed by British antiLewisite and vitamin E: the potential toxicity of metals used as health supplements. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 124(5):397-9. Abstract
  • - NEW - Arora, S; Jain, J; Rajwade, JM; Paknikar, KM. (May 2009). Interactions of silver nanoparticles with primary mouse fibroblasts and liver cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 236(3): 310-318. Abstract
  • - NEW - AshaRani, PV; Mun, GLK; Hande, MP; Valiyaveettil, S. (February 2009). Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Cells. ACS Nano, 3(2): 279-290. Abstract
  • Asharani, PV; Wu, YL; Gong, ZY; Valiyaveettil, S. (June 2008). Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models. Nanotechnology, 19(25). Abstract
  • Benn, TM, Westerhoff P. (June 2008). Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(11): 4133–4139. Abstract
  • Berry, W.J., Cantwell, M.G. et al. (1999). Predicting Toxicity Of Sediments Spiked With Silver. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 40-48. Abstract
  • Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, et al. (July 2006). Short-term silver accumulation in tissues of three marine invertebrates: Shrimp Penaeus duorarum, sea hare Aplysia californica, and sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Aquatic Toxicology, 84(2): 182 -189.
  • Blaser, S.A., Scheringer, M., MacLeoda, M. and Hungerbühler, K. (2008). Estimation of cumulative aquatic exposure and risk due to silver: Contribution of nano-functionalized plastics and textiles. Science of The Total Environment, 390: 396–409. Abstract
  • Braydich-Stolle, L., Hussain, S., Schlager, J.J., and Hofmann, M.C. (2005). In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells. Toxicol. Sci., 88: 412–419. Abstract
  • Brown, C.L., Parchaso, F., Thompson, J.K., Luoma, S.N. (2003). Assessing Toxicant Effects in a Complex Estuary: A Case Study of Effects of Silver on Reproduction in the Bivalve, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9(1): 95-119. Article
  • Burd, A., Kwok, C.H., Hung, S.C. et al. (2007). A comparative study of the cytotoxicity of silver-based dressings in monolayer cell, tissue explant, and animal models. Wound Repair Regen., 15(1):94-104. Abstract
  • Bury, N.R., McGeer, J.C, and Wood, C.M. (1999). Effects Of Altering Freshwater Chemistry On Physiological Responses Of Rainbow Trout To Silver Exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 50-55. Abstract
  • Bury, N.R., Galvez, F., and Wood, C.M. (1999).
    Effects Of Chloride, Calcium, And Dissolved Organic Carbon On Silver Toxicity: Comparison Between Rainbow Trout And Fathead Minnows. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 56-62. Abstract
  • Call DJ, Polkinghorne CN, Markee TP, et al. (July 2006). Toxicity of silver in water and sediment to the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25(7): 1802 -1808. Abstract
  • Call, D.J., Polkinghorne, C.N. et al. (1999). Silver Toxicity To Chironomus Tentans In Two Freshwater Sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 30-39. Abstract
  • Carlson, C., Hussain, S. M., Schrand, A. M. et al. (October 2008). Unique Cellular Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles: Size-Dependent Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. J. Phys. Chem. B, 112(43):13608–13619. Abstract
  • Cha, K; Hong, HW; Choi, YG. et al. (November 2008). Comparison of acute responses of mice livers to short-term exposure to nano-sized or micro-sized silver particles. Biotechnology Letters, 30(11):1893-1899. Abstract
  • Chappell, J.B. and Greviller, G.D. (1954). Effect of silver ions on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase. Nature, 174: 930–931. Abstract
  • Chen, X; Schluesener, HJ. (January 2008). Nanosilver: A nanoproduct in medical application. Toxicology Letters, 176(1): 1-12. Abstract
  • Chen, D., Xi, T. Bai, J. (September 2007). Biological effects induced by nanosilver particles: in vivo study. Biomed. Mater., 2 S126-S128. Abstract
  • - NEW - Chi ZX, Liu RT, Zhao LZ et al. (April 2009). A new strategy to probe the genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles combined with cetylpyridine bromide. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 72(3): 577-581. Abstract
  • Choi, O., Hu, Z. (2008). Size Dependent and Reactive Oxygen Species Related Nanosilver Toxicity to Nitrifying Bacteria. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (12), 4583–4588. Abstract
  • Choi, O., Deng, K.K., Kim, N.J., et al. (2008). The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions, and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth. Water Research, in Press, Corrected Proof. Abstract
  • Eckelman MJ,Graedel TE. (2007). Silver emissions and their environmental impacts: A multilevel assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41 (17): 6283-6289. Abstract
  • Eisler, R. (1996). A review of silver hazards to plants and animals, pp. 143-144. In: Andren, Anders W.; Bober, Thomas W. (ed.) The 4th international conference proceedings: transport, fate and
    effects of silver in the environment
  • Ernst, E., Rungby, J., Baatrup, E. (1991). Ultrastructural localization of silver in rat testis and organ distribution of radioactive silver in the rat. Journal of applied toxicology, 11(5): 317-321. Article
  • Fraser, J.F., Cuttle, L., Kempf, M., Kimble, R.M. (March 2004). Cytotoxicity of topical antimicrobial agents used in burn wounds in Australasia. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 74(3): 139-142. Article
  • Friends of the Earth. (March 2007). Nanosilver - a threat to soil, water and human health? Report.
  • Galvez, F. and Wood, C.M. (1999). Physiological Effects Of Dietary Silver Sulfide Exposure In Rainbow Trout. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 84-88. Abstract
  • Gan, X. Liu, T., Zhong, J. et al. (2004). Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Electron Transfer Reactivity and the Catalytic Activity of Myoglobin. Chembiochem, 5: 1686–1691. Abstract
  • - NEW - Gao, J; Youn, S; Hovsepyan, A. et al. (May 2009). Dispersion and Toxicity of Selected Manufactured Nanomaterials in Natural River Water Samples: Effects of Water Chemical Composition. Environmental science & technology, 43(9): 3322-3328. Abstract
  • Garner, M., Reglinski, J., Smith, W.E. and Stewart, M.J. (1994). The interaction of colloidal metals with erythrocytes. Journal of inorganic biochemistry, 56(4): 283–290.
  • Ghandour, W., Hubbard, J.H., Deistung, J., Hughes, M.N., and Poole, R.K. (1998). The uptake of silver ions by Escherichia coli K12: toxic effects and interaction with copper ions. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , 28,6: 559-565. Abstract
  • - NEW - Greulich C, Kittler S, Epple M, Muhr G, Köller M. (May 2009). Studies on the biocompatibility and the interaction of silver nanoparticles with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Langenbecks Arch Surg., 394(3): 495-502. Abstract
  • Harris, A.T., Bali, B.R. (April 2008). On the formation and extent of uptake of silver nanoparticles by live plants. Journal of nanoparticle research, 10(4): 691-695. Abstract.
  • Haxton, E., Hylander, L.D., Melhus, A. (2006). Silver – a toxic threat to our health and environment. Fact Sheet
  • Hiriart-Baer, V.P., Fortin, C., Lee, D.Y., Campbell, P.G. (June 2006). Toxicity of silver to two freshwater algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Pseudokirchneriella sub-capitata, grown under continuous culture conditions: influence of thiosulphate. Aquatic toxicology, 15;78(2):136-48. Abstract
  • Hogstrand, C., Wood, C.M. (1996). The toxicity of silver to marine fish, pp. 109-112. In: Andren, Anders W.; Bober, Thomas W. (ed.) The 4th international conference proceedings: transport, fate and
    effects of silver in the environment
  • Hollinger, MA. (1996). Toxicological Aspects of Topical Silver Pharmaceuticals. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 26(3): 255-260. Abstract
  • Hussain, S.M., Hess, K.L., Gearhart, J.M. et al. (2005). In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells. Toxicol. In Vitro, 19: 975–983. Abstract
  • Hsin, YH; Chena, CF; Huang, S. et al. (July 2008). The apoptotic effect of nanosilver is mediated by a ROS- and JNK-dependent mechanism involving the mitochondrial pathway in NIH3T3 cells. Toxicology Letters, 179(3):130-139
  • Hyun, JS; Lee, BS; Ryu, HY; et al. (November 2008). Effects of repeated silver nanoparticles exposure on the histological structure and mucins of nasal respiratory mucosa in rats. Toxicology Letters, 182(1-3):24-28.
  • Iwasaki, S., Yoshimura,A., Ideura, T. et al. (1997). Elimination study of silver in a hemodialyzed burn patient treated with silver sulfadiazine cream. Am. J. Kidney Dis., 30(2): 287–290. Abstract
  • Ji, J.H., Jung, J.H., Yu, I.J., Kim, S.S. (July 2007). Long-Term Stability Characteristics of Metal Nanoparticle Generator Using Small Ceramic Heater for Inhalation Toxicity Studies. Inhalation Toxicology, 19(9): 745 - 751. Abstract
  • Ji, J.H., Jung, J.H., Kim, S.S. et al. (January 2007). Twenty-Eight-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Silver Nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Inhalation Toxicology, 19(10): 857 - 871. Abstract
  • Kakurai, M., Demitsu, T., Umemoto, N. et al. (2003). Activation of mast cells by silver particles in a patient with localized argyria due to implantation of acupuncture needles. Br. J. Dermatol., 148: 822. Abstract
  • Karen, D.J., Ownby, D.R. et al. (1999). Influence Of Water Quality On Silver Toxicity To Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas), And Water Fleas (Daphnia Magna). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 63-70. Abstract
  • - NEW - Khaydarov, RR; Khaydarov, RA; Estrin, Y. et al. (2009). Silver Nanoparticles: Environmental and Human Health Impacts, in Nanomaterials: Risks and Benefits, 287-297 - NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Abstract
  • Kim, Y.S., Kim, J.S., Cho, H.S. et al. (April 2008). Twenty-Eight-Day Oral Toxicity, Genotoxicity, and Gender-Related Tissue Distribution of Silver Nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Inhalation Toxicology, 20(6):575-583. Abstract
  • - NEW - Kittler, S.; Greulich, C.; Koeller, M.; Epple, M. (April 2009). Synthesis of PVP-coated silver nanoparticles and their biological activity towards human mesenchymal stem cells. Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, 40 (4): 258-26440 (4): 258-264. Abstract
  • Kolts, J.M., Boese, C.J., Meyer, J.S. (July 2006). Acute toxicity of copper and silver to Ceriodaphnia dubia in the presence of food. Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 25(7):1831-5. Abstract
  • Kone, B.C., Kaleta, M. and Gullans, S.R. (1988). Silver ion (Ag+) induced increases in cell membrane K+ and Na+ permeability in renal proximal tubule: reversal by thiol reagents. J. Membr. Biol., 102: 11–19. Abstract
  • Kristiansen, S; Ifversen, P; Danscher, G. (July 2008). Ultrastructural localization and chemical binding of silver ions in human organotypic skin cultures. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 130(1): 177-184. Abstract
  • Krizkova S, Ryant P, Krystofova O, et al. (January 2008). Multi-instrumental analysis of tissues of sunflower plants treated with silver(I) ions - Plants as bioindicators of environmental pollution. Sensors, 8(1): 445–463. Article
  • - NEW - Kvitek, L; Vanickova, M; Panacek, A. et al. (March 2009). Initial Study on the Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles (NPs) against Paramecium caudatum. Journal Of Physical Chemistry, C, 113(11): 4296-4300. Abstract
  • Lam, P.K., Chan, E.S., Ho, W.S., and Liew, C.T. (2004). In vitro cytotoxicity testing of a nanocrystalline silver dressing (Acticoat) on cultured keratinocytes. Br. J. Biomed. Sci., 61(3): 125–127. Abstract
  • Lansdown, A.B. (March 2007). Critical observations on the neurotoxicity of silver. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 37(3): 237-250. Abstract
  • Lansdown, A.B. (2006). Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Current problems in dermatology, 33:17-34. Abstract
  • Lee, K.J., Nallathamby,P.D., Browning, L.M., et al. (2007). In Vivo Imaging of Transport and Biocompatibility of Single Silver Nanoparticles in Early Development of Zebrafish Embryos. ACS Nano, 1(2), 133–143. Abstract
  • Lesniak, W., Bielinska, A.U., Sun,K. (2005). Silver/dendrimer nanocomposites as biomarkers: fabrication, characterization, in vitro toxicity, and intracellular detection. Nano Lett., 5: 2123–2130. Article
  • Lubick, N. (2008). Nanosilver toxicity: ions, nanoparticies-or both? Environmental science & technology, 42(23): 8617-8617. Abstract
  • Mikelova R, Baloun J, Petrlova J, et al. (2007). Electrochemical determination of Ag-ions in environment waters and their action on plant embryos. Bioelectrochemistry, 70(2): 508-518. Abstract
  • Mitchell, D.N., Godwin, H.A., Claudio, E. (Spring 2004). Nanoparticle Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Comparative Study Using Au Colloid, Ag Colloid, and HAuCI4 3H2O in Solution. Nanoscape, 1:59-69. Article
  • Naddy RB, Rehner AB, Mcnerney GR, et al. (September 2007). Comparison of short-term chronic and chronic silver toxicity to fathead minnows in unamended and sodium chloride-amended waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26(9): 1922-1930. Article
  • Naddy RB, Gorsuch JW, Rehner AB, et al. (August 2007). Chronic toxicity of silver nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna, and potential mitigating factors. Aquatic Toxicology, 84(1): 1-10. Article
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Toxicology Program. Research Concept: Nanoscale silver. Presentation
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Toxicology Program. (December 2006). Nanoscale Silver - Nomination and Review of Toxicological Literature. Document
  • Navarro, E; Piccapietra, F; Wagner, B. et al. (December 2008). Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(23):8959-8964. Abstract
  • Nel, A. (2005). Air pollution-related illness: effects of particles. Science, 6(308): 04–806. Abstract
  • Ohbo, Y., Fukuzako, H., Takeuchi, K. and Takigawa, M. (1996). Argyria and convulsive seizures caused by ingestion of silver in a patient with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 50: 89–90. Abstract
  • Paddle-Ledinek, J.E., Nasa, Z., and Cleland, H.J. (2006). Effect of different wound dressings on cell viability and proliferation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 117: 110S–118S. Abstract
  • Panyala, NR; Pena-Mendez, EM; Havel, J. (2008). Silver or silver nanoparticles: a hazardous threat to the environment and human health? Journal of Applied Biomedicine, 6(3): 117-129.
  • Pavlostathis SG, Maeng SK. (2000). Fate and effect of silver on the anaerobic digestion process. Water research, 34(16):3957-3966 .
  • Pedroso MS, Bersano JG, Bianchini A. (October 2007). Acute silver toxicity in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa: influence of salinity and food. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26(10): 2158 -2165. Abstract
  • Poon, V.K., Burd, A. (2004). In vitro cytotoxity of silver: implication for clinical wound care. Burns, 30(2):140-7. Abstract
  • Ratte, H.T. (1999). Bioaccumulation And Toxicity Of Silver Compounds: A Review. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 89-108. Abstract
  • - NEW - Roh, JY; Sim, SJ; Yi, J. et al. (May 2009). Ecotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles on the Soil Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Using Functional Ecotoxicogenomics. Environmental science & technology, 43(10): 3933-3940. Abstract
  • Rosenman KD, Seixas N, Jacobs I. (1987). Potential nephrotoxic effects of exposure to silver. Br J Ind Med., 44(4):267-72. Abstract
  • Sato, S., Sueki, H., Nishijima, A. (1999). Two unusual cases of argyria: the application of an improved tissue processing method for X-ray microanalysis of selenium and sulphur in silver-laden granules. British Journal of Dermatology, 140(1): 158–163. Abstract
  • Sawosz E, Binek M, Grodzik M, et al. (2007). Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails. Archives of animal nutrition, 61(6): 444–451.
  • Shin SH, Ye MK, Kim HS, Kang HS. (December 2007). The effects of nano-silver on the proliferation and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int Immunopharmacol., 7(13):1813-8. Abstract
  • Soto, K., Garza, K.M. and Murr, L.E. (2007). Cytotoxic effects of aggregated nanomaterials. Acta Biomater., 3: 351–358. Abstract
  • - NEW - Sung JH, Ji JH, Park JD et al. (2009). Subchronic inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. Toxicol Sci., 108(2):452-461. Abstract
  • Sung, J.H., Ji, J.H., Yoon, J.U. et al. (April 2008). Lung Function Changes in Sprague-Dawley Rats After Prolonged Inhalation Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles. Inhalation Toxicology: 20(6), 567-574.
    Abstract
  • Suzuki, Y., Yoshimaru, T., Yamashita, K. et al. (2001). Exposure of RBL-2H3 mast cells to Ag(+) induces cell degranulation and mediator release. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 283: 707–714. Abstract
  • Takenaka, S., Karg,E., Roth, C. et al. (2001). Pulmonary and systemic distribution of inhaled ultrafine silver particles in rats. Environ. Health Perspect., 4(Suppl.): 547–551. Abstract
  • Takenaka, S., Karg,E., Moller, W. et al. (2000). A morphologic study on the fate of ultrafine silver particles: distribution pattern of phagocytized metallic silver in vitro and in vivo. Inhal. Toxicol., 12: 291–299. Abstract
  • Tang, JL; Xiong, L; Wang, S. et al. (November 2008). Influence of silver nanoparticles on neurons and blood-brain barrier via subcutaneous injection in rats. Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, 255(2):502-504.
  • Trop, M., Novak, M. Rodl, S. et al. (March 2006). Silver-Coated Dressing Acticoat Caused Raised Liver Enzymes and Argyria-like Symptoms in Burn Patient. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care, 60(3):648-652. Abstract
  • Van de Voorde, K., Nijsten, T. et al. (2005). Long-term use of silver containing nose-drops resulting in systemic argyria. Acta Clin. Belg., 60: 33–35. Abstract
  • Wang, D.Y., Yang, P. (April 2007). Silver Exposure Causes Transferable Defects of Phenotypes and Behaviors in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environmental Bioindicators, 2(2): 89-98. Abstract
  • Ward, T.J., Kramer J.R., Boeri, R.L., Gorsuch, J.W. (June 2006). Chronic toxicity of silver to the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata). Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 25(6): 1568-73. Abstract
  • Ward, T.J., Boeri, R.L., Hogstrand, C., Kramer, J.R., Lussier, S.M., Stubblefield, W.A., Wyskiel, D.C., Gorsuch, J.W. (July 2006). Influence of salinity and organic carbon on the chronic toxicity of silver to mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina). Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 25(7):1809-16. Abstract
  • - NEW - Wijnhoven, S.W.P, Peijnenburg, WJPN., Herberts, C.A et al. (June 2009). Nano-silver - a review of available data and knowledge gaps in human and environmental risk assessment. Nanotoxicology, 3(2): 109 - 138. Abstract
  • Wood, C.M., Playle, R.C., and Hogstrand, C. (1999). Physiology And Modeling Of Mechanisms Of Silver Uptake And Toxicity In Fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 71-83. Abstract
  • - NEW - Yang, WJ; Shen, CC; Ji, QL et al. (June 2009). Food storage material silver nanoparticles interfere with DNA replication fidelity and bind with DNA. Nanotechnology, 20 (8): Art. No. 085102. Abstract
  • Yoshimaru, T., Suzuki, Y., Inoue,T. (2006). Silver activates mast cells through reactive oxygen species production and a thiol-sensitive store-independent Ca2+ influx, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 40: 1949–1959. Abstract
  • Zhang, Y. and Sun, J. (2007). A Study on the bio-safety for nano-silver as anti-bacterial materials. Chin. J. Med. Instrumen., 31: 35–38. Abstract

Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles

  • - NEW - Larese FF, D'Agostin F, Crosera M, et al. (January 2009). Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin. Toxicology, 255(1-2):33-7. Abstract

Microbial resistance

  • Bridges K, Kidson A, Lowbury EJ et al. (1979). Gentamicin- and silver-resistant Pseudomonas in a burns unit. Br Med J., 1:446–9. Abstract
  • Chopra I. (2007). The increasing use of silver-based products as antimicrobial agents: a useful development or a cause for concern? Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 59:587–590. Abstract
  • Davis, I. J., Richards, H., Mullany, P. (June 2005). Isolation of silver- and antibiotic-resistant Enterobacter cloacae from teeth. Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 20,3: 191. Abstract
  • Deshpande, LM, Chopade, BA. (1994). Plasmid mediated silver resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Biometals, 7:49–56. Abstract
  • Friends of the Earth. (March 2007). Nanosilver - a threat to soil, water and human health? Report.
  • Gupta, A., Matsui, K., Lo, J.F. & Silver, S. (1999). Molecular basis for resistance to silver cations in Salmonella. Nature Medicine. 5, 183-188. Article
  • Gupta, A., and Silver, S. (October 1998). Silver as a biocide. Will resistance become a problem? Nature Biotechnology, 16:888. Article
  • Gupta A, Maynes M, Silver S. (1998). Effects of halides on plasmid-mediated silver resistance in Escherichia coli. Appl Env Microbiol., 12:5042–5045. Article
  • Hendry AT, Stewart IO. (1979). Silver-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from hospital patients. Can J Microbiol., 25:915–21. Abstract
  • Katsikogianni, M. and Missirlis, Y.F. (2004). Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials and of techniques used in estimating bacteriamaterial interactions. European Cells and Materials. 8: 37-57. Article
  • Klaus, K., Joerger, R., Olsson, E., and Granqvist, C.G. (November 1999). Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. PNAS, 96,24: 13611-13614. Article
  • Landsdown AB, Williams A. (January 2007). Bacterial resistance to silver in wound care and medical devices. J Wound Care., 16(1):15-9. Abstract
  • Ledrich, M.L., Stemmler, S., Laval-Gilly, P., Foucaud, L., and Falla, J. (December 2005). Precipitation of Silver-Thiosulfate Complex and Immobilization of Silver by Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. BioMetals, 18,6: 643-650. Abstract
  • Li X-Z, Nikaido H, Williams KE. 1997. Silver-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli display active efflux of Ag+ and are deficient in porins. J Bacteriol. , 179(19):6127–6132. Abstract
  • Lok, CN; Ho, CM; Chen, R. et al. (June 2008). Proteomic identification of the Cus system as a major determinant of constitutive Escherichia coli silver resistance of chromosomal origin. Journal of proteome research, 7(6): 2351-2356. Abstract
  • McHugh, GL, Moellering, RC, Hopkins, CC et al. (1975). Salmonella typhimurium resistant to silver nitrate, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin. Lancet, 1: 235–40. Abstract
  • Margulis, L., and Case, E. (November-December 2006). The germs of life. Orion. Article
  • Percival SL, Woods E, Nutekpor M., et al. (March 2008). Prevalence of silver resistance in bacteria isolated from diabetic foot ulcers and efficacy of silver-containing wound dressings. Ostomy Wound Manage., 54(3):30-40. Abstract
  • Percival SL, Bowler PG, Russell D. (2005). Bacterial resistance to silver in wound care. J Hosp Infect., 60(1):1-7. Abstract
  • Silver, S., Le T. Phung and Silver, G. (2006). Silver as biocides in burn and wound dressings and bacterial resistance to silver compounds. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 33: 627-634. Article
  • Silver, S. (2003). Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 27:341-353. Abstract
  • Slawson, R. M., Lohmeier-Vogel, E. M., Lee, H. and Trevors, J. T. (1994). Silver resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri. BioMetals, 7,1: 30-40. Abstract
  • Tenover FC. (2006). Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Am J Infect Control, 34(S1):S3-S10. Abstract

Detection, Measure and Remediation of silver compounds in the environment

  • Benn, TM, Westerhoff P. (2008). Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics. Environmental Science & Technology. Abstract
  • Blaser, S.A., Scheringer, M., MacLeoda, M. and Hungerbühler, K. (2008). Estimation of cumulative aquatic exposure and risk due to silver: Contribution of nano-functionalized plastics and textiles. Science of The Total Environment, 390: 396–409. Abstract
  • - NEW - Choi, O; Cleuenger, TE; Deng, BL. et al. (April 2009). Role of sulfide and ligand strength in controlling nanosilver toxicity. Water Research,43(7): 1879-1886. Abstract
  • Essumang, DK; Nortsu, BK. (2008). Analysis of silver in the water column of the Pra and the Eture estuaries in Ghana. Chemistry in Ecology, 24(4): 297-303. Abstract
  • Howe, P.D. and Dr Dobson, S. (2002). Silver and silver compounds: environmental aspects. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document
  • Manzoori JL, Abdolmohammad-Zadeh H, Amjadi M.. (2007). Ultra-trace determination of silver in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with a ligand-less cloud point extraction methodology. J Hazard Mater., 1;144(1-2): 458-63. Abstract
  • Metian, M; Warnau, M. (November 2008). The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A prospective bioindicator for Ag contamination in tropical coastal waters. Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, 81(5):455-458. Abstract
  • Mueller, N.C, and Nowack, B. (2008). Exposure Modeling of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(12):4447–4453. Abstract
  • Ohta K, Saruma K, Kaneco S, et al. (2002). Preconcentration of trace silver with yeast for river water analysis. Ann Chim., 92(5-6): 587-94. Abstract
  • Valverde, F; Costas, M; Pena, F. et al. (November 2008). Determination of total silver and silver species in coastal seawater by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry after batch sorption experiments with Chelex-100 resin. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 20(4):217-226. Abstract

Occupational, health and safety issues related to silver particles and compounds

  • Armitage, S.A., White, M.A., H. Kerr Wilson, H.K. (1996). The determination of silver in whole blood and its application to biological monitoring of occupationally exposed groups. Am. occup. Hyg., 40(3): 331-338.
  • Barrie, H.J., and Harding, H.E. (1947). Argyro-siderosis of the lungs in silver finishers. Brit. J. industr. Med., 4, 225. Article
  • Brooks, S.M. (1981). Ultrastructural localization and chemical binding of silver ions in human organotypic skin cultures. Clin Chest Med., 2(2): 235-54. Abstract
  • Cho, EA; Lee, WS; Kim, KM; Kim, SY. (November 2008). Occupational generalized argyria after exposure to aerosolized silver. Journal of Dermatology, 35(11):759-760.
  • DiVincenzo, G. D., Giordano, C. J. and Schriever, L. S. (1985). Biologic monitoring of workers exposed to silver. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 56(3): 207-215. Abstract
  • Drake, P.L. and Hazelwood, K.J. (2005). Exposure-Related Health Effects of Silver and Silver Compounds: A Review. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 49(7):575-585. Abstract
  • - NEW - Hussain, SM; Schlager, JJ. (April 2009). Safety Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles: Inhalation Model for Chronic Exposure. Toxicological Sciences, 108(2): 223-224. Abstract
  • Kayarkar, R., Parker, AJ., Goepel, JR. (2003). The Sheffield nose - An occupational disease? Rhinology, 41(2):125-6. Abstract
  • - NEW - Kim, Y; Suh, HS; Cha, HJ. et al. (March 2009). A Case of Generalized Argyria After Ingestion of Colloidal Silver Solution. American Journal Of Industrial Medicine, 52(3): 246-250. Abstract
  • Moss, A.P., Sugar, A., Hargett, N.A. et al. (1979). The ocular manifestations and functional effects of occupational argyrosis. Archives of Ophtalmology, 97(5). Abstract
  • Pala, G; Fronterre, A; Scafa, F. et al. (November 2008). Ocular Argyrosis in a Silver Craftsman. Journal of Occupational Health , 50(6):521-524. Abstract
  • Pifer JW, Friedlander BR, Kintz RT, Stockdale DK. (1989). Absence of toxic effects in silver reclamation workers. Scand J Work Environ Health., 15(3):210-21. Abstract
  • Rosenman KD, Seixas N, Jacobs I. (1987). Potential nephrotoxic effects of exposure to silver. Br J Ind Med., 44(4):267-72. Abstract
  • Rosenman KD, Moss, A., Kon, S. (1979). Argyria - clinical implications of exposure to silver-nitrate and silver-oxide. Journal Of Occupational And Environmental Medicine, 21(6): 430-435. Abstract
  • - NEW - Tsai, SJ., Ada, E., Isaacs, JA., and Ellenbecker, MJ. (January 2009). Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11(1): 223-224. Abstract
  • Weir, F.W. (1979). Health-hazard from occupational exposure to metallic copper and silver dust. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 40(3): 245-247. Abstract
  • Williams, N. and Gardner, I. (1995). Absence of symptoms in silver refiners with raised blood silver levels. Occup. Med., 45(4): 205-8. Abstract

Synthesis

  • Baker C, Pradhan A, Pakstis L, et al. (2005). Synthesis and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol., 5(2):244-9. Abstract
  • Evanoff, D.D. and Chumanov, G. (2005). Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanoparticles and arrays. Chemphyschem, 6: 221–1231. Abstract
  • Liu, H.G., Xiao F., Wang, C.W., et al. (February 2008). One-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles at the air-water interface using different methods. Nanotechnology, 19(5). Abstract

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